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BIOLOGY.

B.A. or B.S. Degree in Biology
Minor in Biology
Secondary Teacher Licensure

Biology Degree – Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science (BA, BS)

Learn biology content in the context of work-world applications.

Pursuing a Biology major at Catawba College offers students an unparalleled education in biological concepts and critical thinking. Close-mentoring, dynamic-experiential teaching, research, travel, and applied service learning opportunities expose our students to the breadth and wonder of the natural world. In fact, the skills and preparedness of Catawba College Biology graduates are so impressive that Zippia ranks Catawba College #6 in North Carolina among Top Colleges for Biology Majors.

Catawba College Biology students produce substantive research for presentations at scholarly conferences or in professional publications.  They give back to the community in meaningful ways through service projects that range from helping to restore the American Chestnut to serving as assistants at local free dental clinics.  These are just a few of the hallmarks realized by Catawba College students pursuing a Biology bachelor’s degree.


Bachelor of Arts Degree in Biology

Those students who pursue the Bachelor of Arts degree in Biology want to have a foundational biologic skill set. However, one of the requirements for this B.A. degree is that students must pursue a minor.  Undergraduates choose a minor to this Bachelor of Arts degree to prepare themselves for a less traditional career pathway in science. Some examples of possible minors at Catawba College and the potential career outcome include:

BA in Biology + minor in Writing = Science Writer

BA in Biology + minor in Business, Accounting, or Marketing = Science Business, Pharmaceutical Sales

BA in Biology + minor in Information Systems = Bioinformatics

BA in Biology + minor in Political Science = Science Policy, Law

BA in Biology + minor in Philosophy = Bioethics

BA in Biology + minor in Studio Art = Science Illustration

BA in Biology + minor in Secondary Education = Science Teacher


Bachelor of Science degree in Biology

Select the Bachelor of Science Degree in Biology for an education in the biological sciences that encompasses the important current content of the discipline, exemplifies the practice of science, and emphasizes the consequences of living in a scientific age.

Catawba College's B.S. Biology degree is an excellent path to prepare for immediate employment in the biological sciences, Health Professional Programs (e.g. Medical School, Physician’s Assistant School, Pharmacy School, Veterinary Medicine School, and Dental School) and for graduate schools (MS and Ph.D.) in all areas related to Biology including Ecology, Molecular and Cell Biology and specialized areas such as Marine Biology.


Minor in Biology

Catawba College offers a minor in Biology for students who successfully complete 20 academic hours of Biology coursework.


Secondary Teacher Licensure

If you want to teach Biology in high school grades 9-12, you should pursue a Secondary Teacher Licensure as a minor at Catawba College in addition to a B.A. or B.S. degree in Biology. A Secondary Education Minor and student teaching will satisfy the minor requirement of the B.A. degree in Biology. Students interested in Comprehensive Science licensure should consult with the Department of Teacher Education for additional required coursework.


Biology Program Highlights

Catawba College’s Biology degree program allows undergraduates to pursue a Bachelor of Arts degree with an 18-21 hour minor of their choice to create a unique skill set that will help them secure a less “traditional” career grounded in biological science. Or, Catawba’s Bachelor of Science degree in Biology is the most science-intensive program and provides the coursework needed for admission into graduate school or medical school and for careers in research, medical or industrial laboratories. Regardless of which Biology degree program you choose, you will be well-prepared for your path after graduation.

Catawba College Biology Student doing Internship
Internships in Biology.

Biology internships are an integral part of the Catawba College experience. The Biology Department has close collaborations with several laboratories at the nearby North Carolina Research Campus in Kannapolis, N.C., where each year our students participate in paid internships in labs studying bioinformatics, protein expression, and human health and nutrition. Moreover, each summer Biology majors participate in paid National Science Foundation-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates and summer biomedical sciences institutes to prepare students for rigorous medical careers.

Catawba Students on Horseback in Puerto Rico
Study Abroad and at Home Programs in Biology.

We offer an international Marine Science travel class to the Caribbean island of Bonaire every other year where Biology majors become SCUBA certified and dive deep into tropical marine ecology. More locally, students in our field-based courses such as Field Botany and Ornithology travel on multi-night trips to biodiversity hotspots along the North Carolina coast (e.g. Outer Banks, NC and Lake Waccamaw, NC) and in the mountains (e.g. Highlands Biological Station, NC and Mount Rogers, VA). Catawba College is a member institution of the Highlands Biological Station (HBS) in Highlands, NC. Our students can take advantage of summer field courses and workshops at HBS with discounts on tuition and housing costs.

Catawba students participating in conservation efforts.
Service Learning in Biology.

We work with many partners such as the LandTrust for Central North Carolina, Catawba Lands Conservancy, and medical practitioners to provide real world, out of the classroom learning experiences that allow our Biology majors to give back to the community in meaningful ways. Some examples of service learning are Catawba students helping to restore the American Chestnut through planting of trial plots, urban estuarine marsh restoration with the Elizabeth River Project, and serving as assistants at local free dental clinics.

Biology students at Catawba conducting a mosquito study
Research Opportunities in Biology.

Working hand in hand with inspiring Biology faculty who study and publish in diverse fields, all Biology majors have the opportunity to participate in undergraduate research. You can explore drug interactions with malaria parasites, distribution and mating behaviors of rare song birds, climate change and coral decline, environmental toxicology and mercury in aquatic systems, complexity of cytoplasmic streaming, and fire ecology and the discovery of new cryptic plant species using molecular techniques.

In 2018 alone, seven current and former undergraduate Biology students published peer-reviewed scientific journal articles in the journals "Frontiers in Pharmacology", "Food and Chemical Toxicology", and "Southeastern Naturalist".

Each year our Biology students win research funding, win research awards and present at biological conferences such as the Association of Southeastern Biologists Meeting, North Carolina Academy of Sciences Meeting, and the State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research and Creativity Research Symposium. 

Scholarships for Biology Majors.
  • Repine Dental Scholarship
  • Susan L. Antrim Webb Merit Scholarship

Related Bachelor Degree Programs

Outcomes

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BIOLOGY DEGREE JOBS.

Our Biology majors are well-prepared for the competitive marketplace when they graduate.  

In fact, we believe that the strength of Catawba College’s Biology degree program is best demonstrated by our graduates who since 2012 have chosen to pursue meaningful vocations such as these:

  • Biological Technician 
  • Emergency Medical Technician 
  • Physician’s Assistant 
  • Microbiologist 
  • Biologist with the Department of Natural Resources
  • Medical Resident at University of Indiana 
  • Plasma Scientist 
  • Medical Scribe
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GRADUATE SCHOOLS.

After earning your undergraduate degree from Catawba College, you will be equipped with the knowledge and depth of learning to assure your success in whatever academic endeavor your pursue.  Catawba Biology graduates are competitive regardless of the institution they choose for their post-baccalaureate work and have successfully completed programs of study at these prestigious institutions:

  • Auburn University 
  • Clemson University 
  • East Carolina University – Brody School of Medicine
  • Marshall University 
  • N.C. State University College of Veterinary Medicine
  • University of Pennsylvania 

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“85% of my vet school class had never heard of Catawba, and only two other people aside from myself in the history of Catawba have been accepted to NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine, but I truly believe it made me stand out as an applicant!” 

Allison Baucom '16
Attending N.C. State University College of Veterinary Medicine

Biology Facilities

189-ACRE
 ECOLOGICAL
PRESERVE

DEDICATED
STUDENT MOLECULAR
BIOLOGY LAB

DIRECT
MERCURY
ANALYZER

SCANNING
ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
(SEM)


GREENHOUSES


HERBARIUM

EPIFLURORESCENT
MICROSCOPE

CORAL
CULTURE
LABORATORY

bio-clubs.jpg

PARTICIPATE.

If you are passionate about Biology and want to improve your knowledge, research and presentation skills, get involved with the Tau Eta Chapter of Tri- Beta (Beta Beta Beta), Catawba’s Biological Honor Society.  Or, if you’re planning to pursue a career in Health Services, the Catawba Pre-Health Club may be just the place for you.

Faculty

Dr. Jay Bolin

Chair and Associate Professor of Biology Dr. Jay Bolin joined the Catawba College faculty after a post-doctoral stint at the Smithsonian Institution’s Department of Botany. Interested in plant systematics, molecular phylogenetics, plant ecology, and parasitic plants, Dr. Bolin has been known to fry up a batch of tasty kudzu leaves for his Biology students. His research recently took him to the country of Oman to conduct taxonomic research on parasitic plants.

Dr. Steve Coggin

Professor of Biology Dr. Steve Coggin’s biological interests include fractals in cell growth and complexity theory in cytoplasmic streaming, but those are just starting points for his scientific curiosity. He and faculty colleague Dr. Joe Poston chased totality in August 2017 and ended up with their photography equipment at a campground in Greenwood, S.C., to successfully record the total solar eclipse. A certified scuba diver, he has traveled with his students to far-flung places like Bonaire and the Galapagos Islands.

Dr. Constance Rogers-Lowery

Professor of Biology and Provost Dr. Constance Rogers-Lowery has an affinity for corals, in particular the physiology of corals.  Her research interests concerning climate change and coral decline led to the establishment of the Coral Culture Laboratory in Catawba College’s Department of Biology where she is always anxious to recruit the next generation of coral aficionados. Although Dr. Lowery was selected in 2018 to serve as Catawba’s provost, her passion for interacting with students will keep her teaching at least one class each semester.

Dr. Joe Poston

Professor of Biology Dr. Joe Poston is interested in ornithology, ecology and animal behavior. He was recently appointed to serve a three-year term on the N.C. Wildlife Resources Nongame Wildlife Advisory Committee as an At-Large Conservation Stakeholder Affiliate.

Dr. Carmony Hartwig

Associate Professor Dr. Carmony Hartwig’s area of expertise is Molecular Parasitology, particularly the protozoan species that results in human malaria. Under her tutelage, the next generation of mosquito experts is being trained and developed on the campus of Catawba College. Thanks to the work she and her Biology students completed, a total of 34 different species of mosquitos have been identified in the 189-acre Stanback Ecological Preserve adjacent to campus.

Dr. John Wear

Associate Professor of Biology and Director of Catawba Center for the Environment Dr. John Wear is interested in aquatic ecology, water quality and sustainable living.  He oversaw the design of Catawba’s sustainable facility on campus and was involved in the creation of the South Yadkin Wildlife Refuge.  Among his distinctions, he was named a North Carolina Conservationist of the Year by the Governor’s Conservation Achievement Awards Program.

Dr. Sue Calcagni

Associate Professor of Biology and Environmental Science Dr. Sue Calcagni teaches in two academic disciplines.  She is an expert in aquatic toxicology, watershed studies, environmental physiology and diversity. She was instrumental in shaping Catawba’s Environment and Sustainability bachelor’s degree program.

Curriculum

Required Courses for B.A. in Biology
Required Courses for B.A. in Biology

BIOL 1501 Molecules and Cells

4

BIOL 1502 Structure and Function of Organisms

4

BIOL 1503 Ecology and Evolution

4

BIOL 2503 Biological Research Methods

2

TWO courses, must be from two different areas: 

Area 1: Cellular and Molecular Biology 
- BIOL 3562 Microbiology 
- BIOL 3590 Cell Biology 
- BIOL 3591 Genetics 
- BIOL 3552 Biochemistry 
- BIOL 3511 Topics in Cell & Molecular Biology 

Area 2: Organismal Biology 
- BIOL 3509 Dendrology 
- BIOL 3521 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy 
- BIOL 3562 Microbiology 
- BIOL 3580 Animal Physiology 
- BIOL 3575 Plant Taxonomy 
- BIOL 3512 Topics in Organismal Biology 

Area 3: Ecology 
- BIOL 2450 Ornithology
- BIOL 2509 Field Botany 
- BIOL 3527 Vertebrate Ecology 
- BIOL 3593 Ecology 
- BIOL 3599 Behavioral Ecology 
- BIOL 3513 Topics in Ecology

8

Biology electives (2000 level & above)

4

BIOL 3600 Evolution

3

BIOL 4501 Capstone in Biological Science

2

CHEM 1501, 1502 General Chemistry I and II

8

 

Total:

39

Students earning a B.A. in Biology must earn a minor in a different field of study approved by department faculty. If a student earns a double major, the second major will count in place of the requirement for a minor).

18-21

 Total (Major + Minor):

57-60 


Because most graduate and professional schools require Physics and Calculus for admission, students contemplating advanced study in the biological sciences are advised to include these courses in their academic programs. All students majoring in Biology are encouraged to elect courses in physics, calculus-based mathematics, chemistry, statistics, and computer science.

Required Courses for B.S. in Biology
Required Courses for B.S. in Biology

BIOL 1501 Molecules and Cells

4

BIOL 1502 Structure and Function of Organisms

4

BIOL 1503 Ecology and Evolution

4

BIOL 2503 Biological Research Methods

2

Three courses, one course from each of 3 different areas:

Area 1: Cellular & Molecular Biology:
- BIOL 3562 Microbiology 
- BIOL 3590 Cell Biology 
- BIOL 3591 Genetics 
- BIOL 3552 Biochemistry 
- BIOL 3511 Topics in Cell and Molecular Biology

Area 2: Organismal Biology:
- BIOL 3509 Dendrology 
- BIOL 3521 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy 
- BIOL 3580 Animal Physiology 
- BIOL 3575 Plant Taxonomy 
- BIOL 3512 Topics in Organismal Biology

Area 3: Ecology:
- BIOL 2450 Ornithology
- BIOL 2509 Field Botany 
- BIOL 3527 Vertebrate Ecology 
- BIOL 3593 Ecology 
- BIOL 3599 Behavioral Ecology 
- BIOL 3513 Topics in Ecology

12

Biology electives (2000 level & above)

4

BIOL 3600 Evolution

3

BIOL 4501 Capstone in Biological Science

2

CHEM 1501, 1502 General Chemistry I and II

8

TWO courses from among the following: 
- CHEM 2501 Analytical Chemistry 
- CHEM 2601 Organic Chemistry I 
- CHEM 2602 Organic Chemistry II 
- CHEM 3511 Physical Chemistry 
- CHEM 3521 Inorganic Chemistry

8

PHYS 2521, 2522 General Physics I & II

8

 

Total:

59


Because most graduate and professional schools require Physics and Calculus for admission, students contemplating advanced study in the biological sciences are advised to include these courses in their academic programs. All students majoring in Biology are encouraged to elect courses in physics, calculus-based mathematics, chemistry, statistics, and computer science.

Required Courses for Minor
Required Courses for Minor

BIOL 1501 Molecules and Cells

4

BIOL 1502 Structure and Function of Organisms

4

BIOL 1503 Ecology and Evolution

4

Biology electives (2000 level & above)

8

 

Total:

20


Because most graduate and professional schools require Physics and Calculus for admission, students contemplating advanced study in the biological sciences are advised to include these courses in their academic programs. All students majoring in Biology are encouraged to elect courses in physics, calculus-based mathematics, chemistry, statistics, and computer science.

Course Descriptions
Course Descriptions

1101 BIOSCIENCE (4 hours)
A general introduction to biological science for non-biology majors. Lecture and laboratory. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 1101 and BIOL 1501, BIOL 1502, BIOL 1503.

1110 TOPICS IN BIOLOGY (1-4 hours)
A study of a topic selected from the biological sciences at an introductory level.

1115 HUMAN BIOLOGY (3 hours)
An introduction to the biological basis of human life, with emphasis on those organ systems and human behaviors that are most significantly involved in issues of health and illness.

1120 CONCEPTS OF GENETICS (3 hours)
An introduction to the science of heredity from Mendel to molecular genetics. This course will emphasize the applications of modern genetics including human genetic diseases, genetic engineering, gene therapy, the human genome project and ethics.

1123 FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROBIOLOGY (4 hours)
This course will be offered as an introductory biology course that will focus on learning basic techniques currently practiced in the field of clinical microbiology. Students will explore microbes of medical importance and gain hands-on experience with microbial culturing, aseptic technique, and gross morphological and chemical characterization of clinically-significant microorganisms.  The course will include both a lecture and laboratory component.

1125 BIOLOGY IN THE MOVIES (3 hours)
An introduction to the science, theory, and practice of biology, using movies as learning and discussion tools.

1501 MOLECULES AND CELLS (4 hours) 
An introduction to the chemical and cellular basis of life for natural science majors. This course will examine biochemistry, cell structure and function, cell division, genetics, molecular biology, genomics and biotechnology. Lecture and laboratory. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 1101 and BIOL 1501.

1502 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ORGANISMS (4 hours) 
An introduction to the morphology and physiology of plants and animals for natural science majors. This course will emphasize the diversity of structure and function among living organisms. Lecture and laboratory. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 1101 and 1502.

1503 ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION (4 hours) 
An introduction to principles of ecology and evolution for natural science majors. This course will examine ecosystems, populations, biogeochemical cycles, biogeography, natural selection, and speciation. Lecture and laboratory. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 1101 and BIOL 1503..

2110 INTERMEDIATE TOPICS IN BIOLOGY (1-4 hours)
A study of topics in the biological sciences at the intermediate level.

2419 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I (4 hours)
Cell structure and functions; tissue and organ systems: Skeletal, muscular and nervous. Lecture and laboratory. Not recommended for Biology majors.

2420 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II (4 hours)
Organ systems: Circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine and reproductive systems. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 2419. Not recommended for Biology majors.

2450 ORNITHOLOGY (4 hours)
Astudy of the biology of birds, to include their behavior, conservation, ecology, evolution, flight, and migration. The lab will emphasize identification of birds in the wild and will also include opportunities to capture and band wild birds. One overnight weekend trip is required.

2475 TROPICAL BIOLOGY (3 hours) 
An introduction to the biology of tropical ecosystems. Content may vary but typically will include a natural history of tropical plants and animals, tropical ecology, and conservation and sustainable use of tropical resources. Includes a trip to the tropics. Same as ENV 2475.

2503 BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS (2 hours)
An introduction to biological research including experimental design, data analysis, statistics, literature review, scientific writing and scientific speaking. Prerequisite: BIOL 1501, BIOL 1502 or BIOL1503.

2509 FIELD BOTANY(4 hours)
An introduction to the study of plants in the field, including winter botany, plant identification, reproductive ecology, useful and harmful plants, and a general treatment of the vegetation and plant communities of North Carolina. Lecture, laboratory and field work. Prerequisite: BIOL 1101 or BIOL 1502.

2513 MARINE SCIENCE (3 hours)
The study of marine organisms and environments. During this course, students will become certified in SCUBA diving and engage in an international dive trip to a Caribbean location.

2514 MARINE SCIENCE LAB (1 hour)
Laboratory to accompany Marine Science lecture. Students will become certified in SCUBA diving and engage in an international dive trip to a Caribbean location. Prerequisite or corequisite: BIOL 2510.

3505 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (3 hours)
A study of the biological principles that can be brought to bear upon species conservation. Principles will come from areas such as population biology, community ecology, human contributions to extinction, and strategies for reversing species declines. Lecture and some field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 1502 or 1503 (both recommended).

3509 DENDROLOGY(3 hours)
A study of woody plants, to include identification, classification, distinguishing characteristics, habits, ranges and habitats, with emphasis on the southeastern United States. Lecture, laboratory and field work. Prerequisite: BIOL 1101 or BIOL 1502.

3510 SELECTED TOPICS IN ADVANCED BIOLOGY(1-4 hours)
Any biological topic of an advanced level of difficulty, not listed in the College Bulletin, and mutually agreed upon by a professor who is qualified in the subject and a group of students, may be offered if there is sufficient demand. Credit will vary with the number of lectures and laboratories offered per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 1501 or 1502 OR 1503 and permission of the instructor.

3514 TOPICS IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY(1-4 hours)
An upper level course on a topic in cellular and/or molecular biology not listed in the College Catalog. Credit will vary with the number of lectures and laboratories offered per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 1501 and permission of the Instructor.

3512 TOPICS IN ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY(1-4 hours)
An upper level course on a topic in organismal biology not listed in the College Catalog. Credit will vary with the number of lectures and laboratories offered per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 1502 and permission of the Instructor.

3513 TOPICS IN ECOLOGY(1-4 hours)
An upper level course on a topic in ecology not listed in the College catalog. Credit will vary with the number of lectures and laboratories offered per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 1503 and permission of the Instructor.

3521 COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY(4 hours)
A study of the past record of evolution (temporal diversity or phylogeny) and the present result of evolution (spatial diversity) of the organs and organ systems of vertebrates with consideration given to their functional adaptations. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 1502.

3527 VERTEBRATE ECOLOGY(4 hours)
A study of vertebrate ecology, particularly how scientists learn about vertebrates by studying them in the wild. Topics will include vertebrate distribution, abundance, behavior, conservation, and evolution. Labs will emphasize sampling vertebrate populations and communities. Lecture and Laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 1503.

3550 MICROSCOPY(4 hours)
A study of the theory, preparation and examination of biological materials for light and electron microscopy. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 1501.

3552 BIOCHEMISTRY(4 hours)
Same as CHEM 3552. An introduction to the chemistry of cellular processes, to include protein conformation and function, the generation and storage of metabolic energy, and the biosynthesis of important cellular structures as the main themes. The course will include a seminar emphasizing representative case studies involving the clinical application of biochemical knowledge. Prerequisite: CHEM 2602.

3562 MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY(4 hours)
The biology of microorganisms including systematics, metabolism, pathogenic mechanisms, and industrial uses. The cellular and humoral immune responses of vertebrates are emphasized in lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 1501.

3565 PARASITOLOGY (4 hours)
The biology of parasitic organisms and the interaction with their hosts.  Lecture and laboratory.  Prerequisite: BIOL 1502.

3575 PLANT TAXONOMY(4 hours)
Classification and systematic survey of vascular plants, principles and methods of systematic botany, general evolutionary relationships and the development of technical keying skills. Lecture, laboratory and overnight field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 1502 and 1503.

3580 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY(4 hours)
The study of function at the cellular, organ, and organismic level. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 1502.

3590 CELL BIOLOGY (4 hours)
A comprehensive study of cells with emphasis on the relationship between structure and function at the cellular and subcellular level. Topics include: organelles, cell division, energy metabolism, cell motility systems, and cell differentiation. Prerequisites: BIOL 1501 and CHEM 2601.

3591 GENETICS(4 hours)
A general study of the basic principles of inheritance, the chemical, structural, and functional bases of genetic material, and quantitative and population genetics. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 1501.

3593 ECOLOGY(4 hours)
A general study of ecological principles to include structure of communities, organism-environment interactions, energy flow, nutrient cycling, competition and population dynamics. Lecture, laboratory and two overnight field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 1503.

3599 BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY(4 hours)
A study of the ways in which an animal’s behavior contributes to the survival and reproductive success of individuals. Topics include social behavior, predator-prey interactions, foraging decisions, mate choice, and parental care. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 1503.

3600 EVOLUTION (3 hours)
Advanced study of the evolution of life on earth. Topics will include evolution at the molecular through population levels, human evolution, and the history of evolutionary thought. Prerequisites or corequisites: Junior or senior standing, BIOL 1501, 1502, and 1503.

4101 BIOLOGY SEMINAR(1-3 hours)
Reports and discussions on various topics in biology presented by students and faculty. Prerequisite: permission of Department Chairman and Instructor.

4201 PRACTICUM IN BIOLOGY (1-6 hours)
A participatory study of a subject under the supervision and guidance of persons in an off-campus situation. Prerequisites: Junior standing in biology permission of coordinating professor and departmental approval. Application must be approved in the semester preceding the one in which the practicum is to be undertaken.

4301 INDEPENDENT STUDY IN BIOLOGY(1-6 hours)
Self-directed study following a contractual plan initiated by the student and conducted under a faculty advisor. Prerequisites: Junior standing in biology, permission of coordinating professor, and departmental approval. Contract must be approved in the semester preceding the one in which the study is to be undertaken.

4401 INTERNSHIP IN BIOLOGY(1-6 hours)
Field experience in some aspect of biology with formal evaluation, supervision and direction provided by an outside agency in concert with the supervisory professor and student. Prerequisites: Permission of coordinating professor and departmental approval. Application must be approved in the semester preceding the one in which the internship is to be undertaken.

4501 CAPSTONE IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE (2 hours)
A capstone experience for senior biology majors that will integrate material learned in the major. A project will be completed that includes reading, writing, synthesis, analysis, and public speaking. Prerequisite: BIOL 2503 and Senior standing.